LIFE Y NATURA 2000
The work of these institutions is instrumental in the battle against climate change and for the conservation of the environment and biodiversity of Europe.
The LIFE Program is managed by the European Commission. In Spain, the National Authority in this regard is the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment through the Directorate General of Services.
Legal framework for the LIFE Program
Regulation (EU) No 1293/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on the establishment of a Programme for the Environment and Climate Action (LIFE) and repealing Regulation (EC) No 614/2007..
Main website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/index.htm
“A coherent European ecological network of special areas of conservation shall be set up under the title Natura 2000. This network, composed of sites hosting the natural habitat types listed in Annex I and habitats of the species listed in Annex II, shall enable the natural habitat types and the species' habitats concerned to be maintained or, where appropriate, restored at a favourable conservation status in their natural range” (article 3.1, Habitats Directive)
Natura 2000 is also linked to Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds, or Birds Directive, as it also includes Special Protection Areas for wild birds and their habitats, which are established as part of the implementation of this Directive.
The goal of the Natura 2000 Network is, therefore, to ensure favourable conservation status for certain types of habitats and species in their natural range by means of special areas for their protection and conservation.
The Network consists of Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) –and by Sites of Community Importance Comunitaria (SCIs) until their transformation into SACs—, established under the Habitats Directive, and of Special Protection Areas (SPAs), designated under the implementation of the Birds Directive.
The Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive have been transposed into the Spanish internal legal order by means of the law 42/2007, 42/2007 from the 13th of December on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity, which constitutes the basic framework for Natura 2000 in Spain.